http://www.leif.org/research/Comparing-UEA-and-SS.pdf

And that hence the methodology used by S&S is no worse than that used by UEA. ]]>

Hoyt and Schatten [HS] claim that Wolf and Wolfer saw [and reported] the same number of Groups, in spite of the difference in telescope [Wolfer’s (left) having twice the aperture and twice the magnification of Wolf’s (right)]:

The number of groups reported by Wolf and Wolfer can be found here [from the Mitteilungen]:

http://www.leif.org/research/Wolf-Wolfer-Data.xls

It is then trivial simply to count how many groups each observer saw, say in a year [naturally corrected for the number of days being less than 365]. This is simple, transparent, and does not make any extraneous assumptions. Here is a graph of the result:

Wolf’s count is shown in red, Wolfer’s in purple, while Wolfer/Wolf is shown by brown dots. The average ratio is 1.64. Multiplying the Wolf counts by that ratio normalizes them to Wolfer’s [blue], with very good agreement [R^2=0.984].

One must thus conclude that Wolfer saw 64% more groups than Wolf, rather than the equal amount claimed by HS.

]]>I’ll moderate the comments to ensure civility and staying on topic.

Please use your real name when commenting.

Comments should be short [less than 3 ‘pages’ with less than 3 Figures].

]]>http://willbell.com/almanacs/AstroTables.htm

Part 6: Sunspot Activity 1749–2014

In a series of tables the following is provided: Yearly means of the definitive Zürich sunspot numbers, from 1749 to 2014. Monthly means of the definitive Zürich sunspot numbers, from January 1749 to December 2014 and, for the same period, the smoothed monthly means, based on the definitive Zürich sunspot numbers, but calculated by means of the formula advocated by J. Meeus (Ciel et Terre, Vol. 74, 445-449; November-December 1958). In this formula, a greater weight is given to the central months. The epochs of maxima and minima of the sunspot activity are presented to the nearest tenth of a year, as calculated by the method used at the Swiss Federal Observatory. The same epochs, but deduced from the data of by J. Meeus considering the month having the highest (or lowest) smoothed mean as the epoch of the sunspot maximum (or minimum). The corresponding smoothed means are also given; the month(s) with the highest or lowest monthly mean. The monthly and yearly numbers of spotless days, that is, days with R = 0, in the period 1850 to 2014. For the years not mentioned in the table, there were no spotless days. Finally, the dates of the beginning of the Sun’s synodic rotations, as seen from the Earth, from A.D. 1981 to 2040, to the nearest 0.01 day (Universal Time).

]]>And when you study the image, you should do so with respect to solar rotation and solar orbital direction, Then add our spaceship Earth’s point of the view.

Hmmm Earthly month to a Solar day..

Seems that seam has been around awhile…

]]>Most stunning SDO/AIA image posted on spaceweather.com today.

Huge baseball seam wow. If that’s not enough in the middle of sun, it looks like a huge 3D knob. Stunning SDO image. How long has that seam been like that? What would a more Galactic scale magnetic field look like cutting through the solar system?

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